January 30, 2015

Roman Bioarchaeology Carnival LXVIII

Some cool new finds, and some interesting new published research this month.  Let's hit it!

New Finds

Tomb of a woman from the 3rd c AD.
Photo by Adriana Romanska.
  • 12 January - Roman link to local cemetery (Luton Today). Seven Roman cremations were found during a dig at a modern cemetery in England (30mi north of London). No more has been reported, though.
  • 28 January - Huge burial site from before 2 thousand years will be analyzed by specialists (Science & Scholarship in Poland). Over 120 burials from the 1st-4th century AD were found in Poland. Burial rituals appear to vary considerably, and there were plenty well-appointed burials. Bioarchaeologists plan to do Sr/C/N isotopes and aDNA analysis.  It would be great to have these data for this part of the Roman Empire!

Amphipolis Updates

  • Becker, M.J. 2014. Dentistry in ancient Rome: direct evidence for extractions based on the teeth from excavations at the Temple of Castor and Pollux in the Roman Forum. International Journal of Anthropology 29(4):209-226. tl;dr - Carious, extracted teeth found in a drain during the excavation of the Temple of Castor and Pollux in the Forum suggest use of the space by a Roman dentist.
  • Manzon, V.S. and E. Gualdi-Russo. Early view. Health patterns of the Etruscan population (6th-3rd centuries BC) in Northern Italy: the case of Spina. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology. tl;dr - "The analysis of porotic hyperostosis and osteoperiostitis allowed [us] to determine the general health status of this group, and the analysis of osteoarthritis to hypothesize a gender[ed] division of labor. The results suggest a relatively high left expectancy for the time as well as good health and quality of life."

January 26, 2015

Who needs a classicist? (Installment 3)

Alright, I know I've been remiss in posting... anything.  But the spring semester started on January 6 (yes, really! I don't know why it's that stupidly early), which left me pretty much zero time between semesters to plan for my courses, particularly given the kiddos' daycare/school was closed at the same time.  At some point, I will dig myself out of the insanity of the start of the semester--oh wait, my teaching classroom flooded last week, so it might be a while--but until then, here's a quick installment of the occasional series "Who needs a classicist?"

First up, from The Atlantic (Dec 2014, p. 22):

Oh no, that's... that's not Greek.
I mean, it is an ancient Greek aphorism in origin, but the Greek is γνῶθι σεαυτόν.  This is the Latin translation.

And next, Slate's culture blog (along with a host of other media outlets) covers a movie I have never heard of, the J-Lo vehicle The Boy Next Door.  J-Lo stars as a high school teacher of classics, and her titular paramour apparently gives her a copy of the Iliad, to which she responds, "Oh, a first edition!" Unfortunately, I can't find a clip of that.  More unfortunately, I watched a trailer for the movie and it looks... wow, yeah.

There you have it.  The Atlantic and whoever wrote The Boy Next Door need a classicist. (Maybe they should hire Arum Park, since she pointed both of these out to me!)

January 2, 2015

PbO Year in Review - 2014

It's time for me to take stock of my year in blogging and see what was most popular, but also what I most enjoyed writing and what I want to write about in 2015.

I wrote 82 posts in 2014 and got 181,504 page views this year. Here are some Top 3 lists in a variety of categories, along with stats on number of views, as I'm still planning to argue for the importance of blogging as part of my tenure case.

Most Popular Posts Written in 2014*
  1. Where did Roman babies poop? (3,535 views)
  2. How long was the average Roman foot, and what size shoe did they wear? (3,422 views; also picked up by Smithsonian Magazine online here)
  3. Philip who? On the recent reanalysis of skeletal remains from Vergina (2,945 views)

Most Popular Posts Last Year Not Written in 2014*
  1. Lead poisoning in Rome: the skeletal evidence (10,882 views last year, 56,662 all time views)
  2. Why is anthropology needed? (4,898 views last year, 15,453 all time views)
  3. Teaching skeletal anatomy to kids (4,161 views last year, 15,661 all time views)
Most Shared Posts on Social Media from 2014*
Top Pedagogy Posts of 2014
Most Popular Bones Posts of 2014
  1. Season 10, Episode 1 (6,079 views)
  2. Season 9, Episode 12 (4,649 views)
  3. Season 9, Episode 13 (4,622 views)

[* Excluding Bones reviews.]

Blogging Resolutions for 2015
  1. Find a good way to track views, social media shares, and comments to better demonstrate the impact of my blogging.
  2. Finish posts I thought about or started on in 2014, including: Amputations in Bioarchaeology, Roman Time and Space, and Roman Dentistry.  (A new article is coming out soon on the last topic, so I will write about that as soon as it's published.)
  3. Blog more about my own research.  (I've got three articles that are forthcoming, so I will blog about those as soon as they're out as well, and try to get some media coverage of them.)
I've been blogging about bioarchaeology since 2007, and I've seen my audience grow every year.  While I haven't had the kind of time to write long-form pieces that I did in 2011-2012 (since I got a full-time tenure-track job), I am still enjoying writing Powered by Osteons and like the direction it's evolved into, with regular features like Who needs an osteologist? and the Roman Bioarchaeology Carnival. I also get to share teaching-related posts here and have met a whole bunch of people -- students, fellow researchers, and people interested in skeletons -- through blogging and social media.  Thanks to all of you for making Powered by Osteons a success!

Roman Bioarchaeology Carnival LXVII

It was yet again a slow month in Roman bioarch news, so here's the month of December to kick off your new year...

Roman Empire

  • 3 December -- Shackled individuals found in Gallo-Roman cemetery in southwest France (Past Horizons). Well, this is a super interesting find.  Among several hundred graves found in a
    Shackled Gallo-Roman
    (via Past Horizons)
    cemetery in France were a few skeletons with metal shackles around their necks and/or legs -- four adults had shackles on their left legs, and one of those also had a metal yoke collar, and one child had metal encircling its left wrist.  The archaeologists have not yet hazarded a guess as to why these individuals were shackled or what it means (which is honestly a nice change from the typical craziness of unwarranted conjecture as soon as something interesting is discovered).  If these are indeed remains of slaves, they add considerably to a bioarchaeological understanding of slavery in the Roman world, since for the most part slaves were buried with or near the families they served and were not typically shackled in this way.  That is, it's hard to find concrete evidence of slaves because they were not really treated differently or separately in death as, for example, slaves in the US South were.
  • 5 December -- Anatolia's bone collection sheds light on history (Hurriyet Daily News). This is a short piece on the very large collection of skeletons held by the Hacettepe University Anthropology Laboratory, where over 10,000 remains date from the Neolithic to the Middle Ages. Most notable is that the lab has a huge number of Neolithic remains, as this was an important time period for the origins of agriculture in the region and the possible origin of Proto-Indo-Europeans.
  • 16 December -- Million-mummy cemetery unearthed in Egypt (LiveScience) and Million mummy discovery disputed in Egypt (Huffington Post).  A group of researchers at Brigham
    One of the supposedly million
    mummies at Fag el-Gamous
    (via LiveScience)
    Young University have been digging a 1st - 7th century necropolis at Fag el-Gamous in Egypt for three decades. The reports vary, but they seem to have found one mummy amid a cemetery of mostly jumbled bones. It is an important cemetery, as it likely represents the remains of the lower socioeconomic classes who couldn't afford mummification, but the report that there are a million mummies seems to have been fabricated.  The team has excavated 1,700 burials, but it's not clear how many of them are mummies.  To add to that, the Ministry of Antiquities is upset with BYU's announcement, likely because it opens the cemetery up to massive amounts of looting.  So, there are a lot of burials -- skeletons wrapped in textiles -- and likely more to be found.  I do question the extrapolation of 1 million bodies, because there's simply no cemetery in the world that's that well-preserved, but given the six-century time span, I suppose with perfect preservation and taphonomy, it's possible.  Anyway, it'll be interesting to see where this goes, whether BYU gets their excavation permit back, whether the cemetery is looted, etc.
  • 20 December -- A monkey in the Late Roman Army (Strange History). Not a new find per se, but renewed interest in the purposeful burial of a barbary macaque (a monkey even though it's often misnamed the "barbary ape") at Iulia Libica in the Pyrenees. The young male was likely brought or traded far north of his usual habitat, and his diet was not particularly good. There is a publication on this, although not easily obtainable for free (reference here).
  • 27 December -- Researchers try to answer mystery of saintly skull (Past Horizons). The relic skull from medieval Denmark was supposed to be that of St. Lucius, who died around 254 AD. Researchers recently did C14 testing to reveal that it actually dates to about a century or two later. Further, strontium isotopes suggest that the individual may have lived near Rome, where medieval envoys tasked with finding an appropriate relic for St. Lucius may have chosen this one (which itself may have been from any of the massive catacombs snaking underneath the city).  An interesting story of modern scientific detective work.
St. Lucius?  Nope.  (via PastHorizons)

Around the Web
"What do you mean? This is always how I study skeletons..."

For more news stories on bones in the new year, please follow Powered by Osteons on Facebook.  I post all skeleton-related news stories I find there, not just Roman ones, along with cartoons and other fun things.  Plus, there's a growing number of people commenting smartly on the posts, so come join us on Facebook!  I hope you all had... 

December 16, 2014

A very bioarchaeology Christmas tree!

Grades are in!  Department holiday party is over!  Sure, I'll be working the rest of the week on syllabi for my spring courses, but I decided to spend an hour today putting my own bioarchaeological spin on this book-Xmas-tree meme that's been going around... 

Merry (very early) Christmas from Powered by Osteons!  (Yes, I know it's actually the first day of Hanukkah today, but if I could figure out how to make a skeleton-book-themed menorah, I would...)

December 12, 2014

Bones - Season 10, Episode 10 (Review)

The 200th in the 10th 

So this isn't a typical episode of Bones, of course.  It's some weird fake-40s movie-within-a-movie-within-a-TV-show, starring every single semi-regular character.  Brennan is trying to be a detective and trying to impress her father, the chief of LAPD.  Booth is a jewel thief whom she tracks to Eva Braga's house.  He breaks into Braga's safe but finds only her smoking, dead body.  Brennan doesn't think Booth did it; she partners with him to clear him if he helps her solve the case and prove her worth as a detective.  Brennan asks Hodgins, Professor Actual Factual, to use his palaeontological skills to figure out information about the skeleton in the safe.

Hodgins and Edison figure out that the person was killed by blunt trauma to the skull before she was put on fire.  They then figure out based on the small shoes and short dress in Braun's closet that the skeletal remains were not hers (they were too tall). Angela helps with a facial reconstruction, and Hodgins figures out Braga was pushed down the stairs and that she was dead a few hours before the dynamite was set.

Aubrey, another jewel thief, has information for Booth but is stabbed in the back, and Booth is framed for his murder.  Meanwhile, Miss Julian, the owner of the Foxy Club, tells Brennan that Booth only stole jewels from people who made money from taking and selling Jewish internees' goods.  Then he gave the money from the sale to his friends who had PTSD from the war.

Brennan and Booth figure out that the murderer is actually Saroyan (the maid).  She stole jewels from Braga, ran off to Rio, met Aubrey there, and came back to LA.  Aubrey figure out she wasn't really Braga, though, and so Saroyan killed Braga and put her in the safe, knowing that Booth would be there to take back the jewels. She also killed Aubrey.  Brennan and Booth confront Saroyan, who takes Brennan with her to the airport to drop her into the ocean.  Booth manages to get into the plane, there's a struggle. Saroyan tries to push Brennan off the plane; she falls out.  Booth flies the plane. Brennan gets to head the division of forensic anthropology.  We never fade back to the 1950s movie stars in the movie, which means the whole opening sequence was pointless.

Stray Comments:

  • Oh jeez, the fake accents.
  • Those dial phones looked like they're from the 60s.  When is this supposed to be set?  After 1945 and before 1969 is all I could figure.
  • Forensic science wasn't invented in the 50s. It's much older, even the bone side (although it wasn't called forensic anthropology then).
  • What is up with Edison's skin color?  Is it a problem of makeup or lighting? (Or my TV?)  Seriously, he was a weird color.

December 4, 2014

Bones - Season 10, Episode 9 (Review)

The Mutilation of the Master Manipulator
Episode Summary
The Jeffersonian is dealing with the very fragmentary remains of an individual whose hand, foot, and upper leg were found in different parts of the greater D.C. area. From the femur, Brennan notes they have a Negroid male, about 6'2" tall. DNA confirms that all body parts are from the same person, but his DNA is not in any database. Angela figures out that the body parts were likely all from the same trash route and asks Booth to send a team out to a neighborhood whose trash hasn't been picked up to see if there are more parts.  In the neighborhood, Brennan gets the skull. More pieces are found in trash compactors around D.C., so the team now has the pelvis and thorax. The auricular surface of the ilia suggest the man was in his early 50s, there are numerous stab wounds, and kerf marks and striae suggest a reciprocating saw was used to disarticulate him. Angela manages to somehow get an ID through facial reconstruction - Randall Fairbanks, a professor of psychology at fictional Kenmore College, on sabbatical for the semester. Saroyan confirms that DNA suggested he was biracial. 

"Don't mind me, I'm just going to point my radical
'90s handset phone at these gooey remains..."
Aubrey and Brennan go to visit the victim's home. Brennan notices the pink hydrangeas, likely that color because of a change in the pH of the soil. She then sees blood-soaked soil. Hodgins comes out and finds that there is so much blood, there are blowflies. Aubrey suggests Hodgins do an experiment with soil composition and blood to see how long it would take the hydrangeas to change color, in order to get time of death. Hodgins and Bray note lots of blood in the garage/workshop, likely where the victim was dismembered. Aubrey finds a tablet with a woman screaming on it; but it turns out it was part of a psychology experiment. Fairbanks asked volunteers to administer test questions to someone outside the room; if the person answered wrong, they pushed a button that delivered a shock. The voice on the tablet was grad student Tabitha pretending to be shocked.  Tabitha insists she cannot give the FBI the names of the participants in the study because of doctor-patient confidentiality, which is utter crap.

Back at the Jeffersonian, another foot and leg come in.  The kerf marks make it look like the killer switched blades in the middle of the task. The thoracic vertebrae show multiple stab wounds, and there's chipping on the anterior aspect of the sternum. Brennan thinks the weapon went through the back and to the front of the body. Angela cross-references the participants on video from Fairbanks' files with student IDs from the college and lands on Alex Heck, who was upset following his participation in the study. Although the remodeled fractures to Fairbanks' mandible and ribs date to around the time that Heck got out of the study and was upset, it turns out Fairbanks injured himself in Brazil on vacation with Victoria Andrews, his previous graduate student. Victoria's relationship with Fairbanks soured, she trashed his lab and got expelled from school, then left the area. She recently moved back to work on and sell her art, and Fairbanks took up with Tabitha. The metal in the blades of a sculpture Victoria made matches the wounds found on Fairbanks, but she denies having killed him. 

The right ulna, radius, tibia, and fibula then come in to the Jeffersonian.  Bray notices bite marks on the right radius and scaphoid that appear to have been made by a woman. Brennan checks Victoria's teeth, but the diastemata are too wide to be hers. Angela pulls footage from the neighbor's birdhouse camera and sees the figure of Tabitha, just hours before Fairbanks was killed.  She admits to having snuck into his house, to do an olfactory experiment on him. He caught her, and they fought, but she left.  Hodgins notes the antifreeze on both of Fairbanks' hands, and Bray finds a curved abrasion on Fairbanks' finger; both of these, plus some of the food particulates Hodgins found earlier, are consistent with poisoned cat food. Brennan xrays the cat and finds bone fragments from a Buick's wren in his stomach. The wren is on the endangered list, which leads the FBI to question Fairbanks' neighbor further. She admits she was trying to poison the cat, who kept scaring away birds that she wanted to watch. Fairbanks caught her, they struggled over the poisoned cat food, and he fell backward onto the sculpture, impaling himself. 

  • Forensic
    • Initial forensic ID seemed reasonable, especially considering the lack of remains that existed.  Diameter of the femoral head can give you sex, and length of the femur is a good proxy for height. I'm not entirely sure what is meant by the "lack of curvature" of the femur -- platymeria is fairly common regardless of race. But I found at least one (not-great) source that suggests femora are "straighter" in people of African descent. And auricular surface is perfectly fine at giving you an age range; it's particularly good for older adults, as we don't have a lot of reliable methods for aging people over 50.
    • They could have done more with the sharp trauma, other than kerf and striae, like calling more attention to the fractures produced and noting how they figure out the blade was changed in the middle. But it all seemed to be in order.
    • I highly doubt that that woman had enough jaw strength to bite into a 6'2" man's wrist--through flesh, muscle, tendons, and into bone so cleanly.  Points for using the word diastemata on TV, though, in spite of the mangled pronunciation. 
  • Plot
    • Does anyone have metal trash cans anymore?  I haven't seen those in, like, two decades.
    • What IRB panel would OK this absurd psychological study?  And even if they OK'ed it in the first place, after that Alex guy went kind of crazy and had adverse effects from the study two years ago, don't you think they'd pull IRB approval?  Plus, this is a research study, not a doctor-patient relationship. I suppose there could be some kind of privacy or anonymity clause in the paperwork the participants had to fill out, but, yeah, no.
    • How did the crazy bird lady get the various body parts to various D.C. parts?
    • Was the sculpture still in the yard? I don't remember seeing it.  What did the crazy bird lady do with it?
    • Can hydrangeas grow blue in northern Virginia?  I ask only because we have them here in Florida, but my mom (from Virginia) hadn't seen them before and was curious to know how to get them.
    • The Hodgins experiment seemed... super fake and super lame.

Forensic Mystery - B+. Not too bad this week, perhaps because the body parts kept rolling in, contributing new and interesting information each time.

Forensic Solution - A-. No major complaints. Could have done a bit more with all the evidence, though, to explain the forensics.

Drama - C. But instead of devoting more time to forensics, they had to focus on Bray getting a girlfriend. Which... eh. Whatevs.

December 3, 2014

Playing Osteology "Beer" Pong

For review sessions in my Human Osteology class, I often do Jeopardy.  I write a whole bunch of questions in three PowerPoints (oh, I do both Single and Double Jeopardy, along with a Final Jeopardy complete with doo-doo-doo think music!), and the students tend to get really involved.  I didn't feel like writing another set of questions for this week's review, and coincidentally Keith Chan* this week put up a blog post about his idea for a "Beer(less) Pong Study Session."  Would osteology "beer" pong work?  I was determined to find out.

First Step - Buying the necessary equipment.
Different beer pong shots. (via Wikipedia)
  • I stopped at Target and got a 6-pack of ping pong balls (about $3) and a 30-ct sleeve of 18oz red Solo cups** (about $3).  I also bought some dried beans, to weight the cups (as open drink containers are not allowed in my lab) (about $1.50).  And I got a stack of 3x5 index cards from the department supply closet.
Second Step - Game setup.
  • My TA and I measured out 8' on one of the lab tables (which seems to be regulation beer pong table length) and set up 10 cups on either end in a triangle, bowling pin-style. 
  • We gave each student 3 index cards and split the class into two teams.  (There are 15 students in my class.)  Each team consulted with one another to write questions to ask the opposing team.
  • The TA and I made a stack of half a dozen cards, to even out the numbers.  (That is, Team A ended up writing 17 questions, but Team B wrote 20.  So we gave Team A three of our questions.)  20 was a good number -- 2 cards for each cup.
  • The students decided which cards should go under which cup.  There's a bit of strategy here, as the middle cups are landed in the most, and the points of the triangle are landed in the least.  So students ended up putting harder questions on the easier-to-hit cups and easier questions on the harder-to-hit cups.
Third Step - Game play.
  • Play rotated from team to team, with each "thrower" ("ponger"?) getting 3 attempts.  If no ball was sunk, play went to the next team.
  • When a ball was thrown or bounced into a cup by the throwing team, the team whose cup it was asked one of the questions underneath it.  If the throwing team got the question right (as judged by the question authors, with me as referee/adjudicator), they got a point.
  • We didn't remove any cups (as I figured it would be easier to play if all 10 cups stayed there the whole time, moving questions if needed).
  • Game play continued until about 10 minutes before the end of class.
  • With time running out, we switched to Lightning Round.  All cards were collected from Team A, and 1 minute was placed on the clock.  Team B had the minute to answer as many of the remaining Team A-written questions as possible, or to pass on the question.  (A wrong answer put the question out of contention; a right answer earned a point.)  Then Team B's cards were read to Team A, which had a minute to answer as many as possible.
That's it!  We did this in a 75-minute class period, with about 20 minutes devoted to game set up and question writing, 45 minutes devoted to regular game play, and 5 minutes for the lightning round.  It was quite lively, especially considering their final papers were due today and many had stayed up late to put the finishing touches on them, and it attracted the attention of the department chair, the other biological anthropologist, and plenty of passers-by in the hallway.  

I'd definitely do it again, as I think having the students create the questions -- individually, but with consultation from a group, and aimed at an opposing team -- was educationally useful.  This worked much better than Osteology Pictionary and, I think, better than Osteology Jeopardy.  I'll put Osteology "Beer" Pong into regular rotation from now on!

* [Have you checked out Keith's Anthropomotron? Incredibly useful and free stature estimation app for Android or iPad, or website!]
** [For more on the cultural caché of red Solo cups, check out this post by Krystal D'Costa of Anthropology in Practice!]

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